The Philippines is relatively susceptible to fronting the tangible effects of climate change, and environmental security is placed under jeopardy. The country is situated along the western part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, where strong typhoons and other natural disasters induced by climate change occur. Thus, the realization of the Paris Climate Agreement poses a profound impact globally
Since the September 11 attacks, counter-terrorism (CT) has gained prominence and become a central issue throughout the world. Given the growing transnational character of terrorism, counter-measures also entailed a collective nature. At this point, the role of global and regional organizations to bring the efforts of the individual countries into a meaningful action become much more important.
Border security ensures sustainable development of a state. Pakistan has the longest border with Afghanistan known as “Durand Line.“ The borderland is rugged, mountainous and porous unable to control the transition of people across the frontier. Both countries are having a history of strained relations but in the past forty years, there were two mass migrations of Afghan people to Pakistan.
Introduction: The Conceptualisation of Terrorism The concept of security historically based on the emergence of human society is also an ambiguity concept both in International Relations discipline and in daily usage. On the one hand while discussions about defining and specifying of the scope of the concept is continuing, on the other hand it is frequently

“Operation Dignity” in Libya

During the so-called “Arab Spring” process, Libya experienced the revolution following the revolution of Tunis. The Libyan revolution began on 17th February 2011 in Benghazi. After that, the optimistic expectations on the democratic revolutions based on political and economic liberalism in Arab countries began to be lost. In this respect, the failure of establishing political

Tapi Is Not The Savior

On 11th June this year President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari has sent the official letter to the Turkmenistan President Gorbangolu Berdimohamed and told about his interests in TAPI project.

History of Azerbaijan - Turkey Relations

“Turkey-Azerbaijan relations should be developed snapping a rational basis. As these relations are defined as “one nation, two states” slogan, this must also be applied to economic and foreign relations of these two states.


The 1990s was a period in which the Cold War ended and socialist regimes collapsed. In this period, the Balkan countries and communities came in a radical transformation and changing process. Within this process, the socioeconomic structures of the Balkan countries were reconstructed and reformed within the context of free market economy.

Turkey and the European Union

Turkey has enjoyed challenging and intricate relations with the European Union (EU) for over half a century. Official ties began in 1963 when Turkey and the then-European Economic Community concluded an Association Agreement that ushered in freer trade and closer political cooperation.

Turkey and Iran

As the neighbouring state most comparable to Turkey in geographic, demographic and socio-economic size, relations with Iran differ from all other neighbourly relations, as Iran is considered Turkey’s equal. As such, the relationship is also filled with historical legacies that have shaped public and elite perceptions.
The dramatic changes in Turkish foreign policy and strategy in its regional and international Trelations in the first decade of the new century stands in sharp contrast with that of its immediate past. After the end of the Cold War, Turkey was a prickly power in a tough neighbourhood, one that included two major zones of instability, the Balkans and the Middle East.

Executive Summary

All eyes will turn to Turkey this month as it votes in parliamentary elections. After nearly a decade in power, and despite setbacks in the 2009 local elections, the Justice and Development Party (AKP), led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan, is expected to win another landslide victory.