Russia backed separatists fighting against the Ukrainian army in the war that started in 2014 and annexed Crimea from Ukraine. On 24 February 2022, Russia escalated this war and invaded Ukraine. This was the most devastating attack on a European country since World War II. Türkiye as a neighbouring country has made the “most intense efforts“ to end the war through talks “based on international law.“ Türkiye’s not anti-Russian but pro-Ukrainian stance allowed her to maintain a delicate balance.