Fallouts of Paris Climate Treaty and Environmental Security: the Pragmatic Case of the Philippines

Article

The Philippines is relatively susceptible to fronting the tangible effects of climate change, and environmental security is placed under jeopardy. The country is situated along the western part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, where strong typhoons and other natural disasters induced by climate change occur. Thus, the realization of the Paris Climate Agreement poses a profound impact globally...

Mohamadan ABDULKASAN
Department of Political Science and Public Administration
Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey

Esra Banu SİPAHİ
Department of Political Science and Public Administration
Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey


ABSTRACT

The Philippines is relatively susceptible to fronting the tangible effects of climate change, and environmental security is placed under jeopardy. The country is situated along the western part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, where strong typhoons and other natural disasters induced by climate change occur. Thus, the realization of the Paris Climate Agreement poses a profound impact globally in reducing the aftermaths of climate change and reassuring the good shape of environmental security in the Philippines. Despite the issues of reservations, on the 28th of February in 2017, President Rodrigo Roa Duterte signed the Instrument of Accession in exhibiting the ratification of the Paris climate deal. This political action manifests that the country is steadfast in mitigating climate change. However, long before this, the President was criticized by several environmental groups for not supporting the climate agreement. Duterte was kind of sceptical because he deems the deal itself is one-sided on the part of the developing countries since most developed states produce most of the carbon emissions in the planet. Conversely, this paper was designed to deliver an analytical evaluation on the pragmatic case of the Philippines regarding its political capacity employing the objectives of the global climate treaty, and to determine the government’s approaches in regulating the use of greenhouse gas emissions from actual to a lesser consumption through policy adaptation. On the one hand, it also targeted to draw a detailed justification on the standing of environmental security in the Philippines openly exposed to climate change.

Key words: the Philippines, Climate change, Environmental security, Mitigation and Adaptation, Paris Climate Treaty


Introduction

The Philippine archipelago composed of 7,641 islands, is feasible to the appalling disasters induced by climate change. It must be also taken into account that the country is situated at the west basin of the Pacific Ocean where relatively quite a number of typhoons and other extreme natural disasters befall. The substantial impacts of climate change pose countless of socio-economic and socio-political impairments and incite environmental destruction hence the manifestation of environmental insecurity.

Environmental insecurity wedged by climate change is somewhat a not-so-contemporary ecological issue as it was seen apparent decades back. Insecurity in the environment is reflected as an all-encompassing environmental problem to date-an immense societal concern the Philippines is defying. It is implied that its relation to national security is indispensable because national security is correspondingly analogous to the fortification of the national interest of a country; when environmental security is at stake, it instantly retaliates to the wellbeing of the country which then redirects to socio-economic and political variabilities.

Moreover, as a universal feedback to climate change with the participation of the Philippines, states adopted an international treaty in offsetting the effects of climate change last December 12, 2015 in Paris. It objectifies a profound reduction of greenhouse gas emissions comprising all countries from developing to already developed states.1 This international agreement is not a new deal of its kind since the same universal arrangement was also founded on the basis of cutback of the total global emissions back in 1992 forming the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC] partaken by 196 parties.2 Similarly, it then aimed to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a balanced level inhibiting risks with the climate system and reducing the additional warming of the planet’s surface that may undesirably distress the ecosystems and the human population.

In relation to the involvement of the Philippines in an international pact as such, it is elaborated that governance embraces a series of weighty political engagements comprising the input of the stakeholders of the society, i.e., public, private sector, and non-governmental/civil society organizations.3 Environmental governance likewise is identical to the contribution of steering groups responsible in shaping profound understanding of environmental problems, crafting of environment-related strategies, building stronger institutions, flexible course of decision making, and proactive democratic participation.

Climate change is indeed the paramount justification behind the Paris Climate Deal. It is becoming an emergent rationalization in the context of global environmental politics thus remains to be the pivot of international diplomacy today. The existing case of the Philippines fronting the impacts of climate change is at the peak of its vulnerable condition although right before the formal ratification of the deal, there was an impression of scepticism with Duterte. He deems the deal itself is one-sided on the part of the developing countries since most developed states produce most of the carbon emissions in the planet. However, despite misgivings and reservations, he inked the Instrument of Accession signifying the Philippines’ confirmation of the universal covenant. Thereafter, the upper house then voted unanimously to adopt the international accord.

It is taken from TASAM Publishing's book named “New World Architecture Of Economy and Security“
This content is protected by Copyright under the Trademark Certificate. It may be partially quoted, provided that the source is cited, its link is given and the name and title of the editor/author (if any) is mentioned exactly the same. When these conditions are fulfilled, there is no need for additional permission. However, if the content is to be used entirely, it is absolutely necessary to obtain written permission from TASAM.

Areas

Continents ( 5 Fields )
Action
 Contents ( 424 ) Actiivities ( 183 )
Areas
Africa 0 139
Asia 0 214
Europe 0 33
Latin America & Carribean 0 31
North America 0 7
Regions ( 4 Fields )
Action
 Contents ( 173 ) Actiivities ( 51 )
Areas
Balkans 0 93
Middle East 0 59
Black Sea and Caucasus 0 16
Mediterranean 0 5
Identity Fields ( 2 Fields )
Action
 Contents ( 175 ) Actiivities ( 71 )
Areas
Islamic World 0 146
Turkish World 0 29
Turkey ( 1 Fields )
Action
 Contents ( 208 ) Actiivities ( 54 )
Areas
Turkey 0 208

Turkey - Indonesia Strategic Dialogue, which will bring together the actors and authorities in a comprehensive way that includes the strategic dimension of the relations, will play a significant role.;

In this context, the Turkey - China Strategic Dialogue, which will mobilize and bring together the entire ecosystem with a strategic approach, will see an important function.;

The 2nd International Mediterranean Congress, which will be held with the main theme of the “Future of the Mediterranean Economy and Turkey“ aims at contributing to increase the communication among the countries in the Region and bring forward proposals for the resolution of the regional problems.;

With all the priorities detailed above, Turkish - Arab Strategic Dialog aims to contribute civilly and academically at healthy management of Strategic Interdependence and Trust Building parameters and creating a common consciousness between Turkey and Arab countries.;

The 2nd International Black Sea – Caucasian Congress, which will be held with the main theme of the “Future of the Black Sea - Caucasian Economy and Turkey“ aims at contributing to this field.;

Hence, the countries in the Region are required to keep the intellectual infrastructure regarding their future fit, and develop such policies that are appropriate to their interests. The 9th International Balkan Forum, which is organized under the main theme of the “Future of the Balkans Economy and...;

In this regard, with the approach of laying emphasize on the strategic dimension of Turkey-Horn of Africa relations as a key point, the Turkey - Horn of Africa Strategic Dialogue, which will bring together the representatives of the related sectors through bilateral and multilateral activities, will...;

The 5th International Middle Eastern Congress, which will be held with the main theme of the “Future of the Middle Eastern Economy and Integration“, aims at contributing to the resolution of the regional issues and the development of the relations of Turkey with the Region.;