“Kashmir” In India and Pakistan: Proposed Paradigms From Conflict to Peace


This is hard to materialize the perpetual peace by Kantian dream. It needs a lot of transparency, a whole gamut of committed political leadership and a collective will for a lasting peace. The problem with ethnic conflicts, especially centered on self-determination, is that they last for decades. Moreover,...

Md Nazmul ISLAM
Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University


This is hard to materialize the perpetual peace by Kantian dream. It needs a lot of transparency, a whole gamut of committed political leadership and a collective will for a lasting peace. The problem with ethnic conflicts, especially centered on self-determination, is that they last for decades. Moreover, we have seen the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict has been going for 66 years and still seems unripe for a lasting solution. The Northern Ireland conflict which entered its violent phase in the 1960s was only resolved through a comprehensive Belfast agreement in 1998. Furthermore, the African civil conflicts, besides being bloody, have also continued for decades. Important instances include the Angolan conflict (1975-2002), The Sierra Leone Conflict (1991 2002), Liberian Civil wars (1989-1996 and 1999-2003) and Sudanese civil war (1983-2005). (International Crisis Group, 2010).

Consequently it is not exceptional observations about the Kashmir which is a natural resourceful, beautiful valley and haven in the earth in contrast with its continuous conflict which has to be unresolved after more than six decades, fuelling the conventional and nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan and bleeding their economy. Kashmir is bleeding, as we speak. The annual casualty rate is chillingly high. At least 40,000 people have been killed since insurgency began in 1989, according to conservative official estimates. Unofficial estimates are well over 80,000-half of them are civilians Thousands of Indian soldiers have been killed and it costs billions of dollars to keep the army in Kashmir. There is one soldier for every 10 kashmiris in the Valley and daily life is a nightmare for the ordinary Kashmiri. (Human Rights Watch, 1999).

Nevertheless, Kashmir conflict has been a longstanding diplomatic obstacle that has prevented normalized relations between India and Pakistan. Both countries insist upon their rightful claim to Kashmir, have fought three wars over the region since achieving independence from Britain in 1947, and have come close to a fourth conflict on innumerable occasions. (Krishnadev Calamur, 2004). In addition, it can be said that only a mediated peace accord various proposed suggestions which will be presented, can successfully address the multiple factors that contribute to Indian and Pakistani distrust, which, in turn, hinders the opportunity for a long-term solution in Kashmir.

Methodology of the Study

The methodology is the functional action strategy to carry out the study in the light of the theoretical framework and guiding research question it is followed by a set of pre-specified procedures. This study is followed following strategy.

Main Method

There are three possibilities for any study. It can have all qualitative date, it can have all quantitative date, or it can combine-both types in any proportions. My study is basically based on a mixed method. It is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods but mostly prone to the qualitative approach.

Secondary Data

Secondary data is used for the reanalysis of previously collected and analyzed data. There are clear advantages to working with an existing body of data, including cost, time and working with an existing body of data, including cost, time and working with making difficult populations accessible. (Punch, 1998). In order to collect secondary materials I will use many journals, library and relevant websites.

Theoretical Background of the Study

Although Kashmir conflict can be explained from various theories but in this study it will be analyzed some distinct theories. These theories explained the reasons of the Kashmir conflict with the solutions of this bloody conflict which is enduring more than sixty seven years between India and Pakistan.

Protracted social conflict theory

Kashmir conflict can be defined from the protracted social conflict theory. This theory is developed by the very prominent scholar Edward Azar. The theory indicates to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractable, for instances as complex, severe, commonly enduring, and often violent. When a group’s identity is threatened or frustrated, intractable conflict is almost inevitable. (Fisher and Cyprus, 2001). Additionally, Edward Azar termed it, denotes hostile interactions between communal groups that are based in deep-seated racial, ethnic, religious and cultural hatreds, and that persist over long periods of time with sporadic outbreaks of violence. (Ramsbotham, 2008). If we stipulate the Kashmir conflict on the basis of protracted conflict then it is clearly clarify to us above characteristics of protracted conflict can be found in Kashmir conflict due to its deep-rooted, communal, religious and long periods disputed features. further it was renewed by Neal E. Miller in 1939 and Roger Barker in 1941 and Leonard Berkowitz in 1969. (Berkowitz, 1969). The theory says that aggression is the result of blocking, or frustrating, person’s efforts to attain a goal. Even it has given an explanation as to the causes of violence. The frustrationaggression theory argues that social movements occur when frustration leads to collective, often aggressive behavior which we have frequently seen in the Kashmir valley.

Theory of justice

This theory is deal with the solution of Kashmir conflict by ensuring justice because justice is the first virtue of social institutions. Its primary subject is the basic structure of society, or more exactly, the way in which the major social institutions distribute fundamental rights and duties and determine the division of advantages from social cooperation. (John, 1971). This theory developed by Johan Rowls for two fundamental principles such as

i. Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all.

ii. Social and income equalities are to be arranged. (Ibid, 10)

This theory can proportionately relate for the better solution of Kashmir conflict. Therefore, According to these theories, I embellish my conceptual and theoretical framework on Kashmir conflict by the following methods.

It is taken from TASAM Publishing's book named "Change in State Nature: Boundaries of Security".
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Continents ( 5 Fields )
 Contents ( 407 ) Actiivities ( 172 )
Africa 65 135
Asia 75 208
Europe 13 29
Latin America & Carribean 12 30
North America 7 5
Regions ( 4 Fields )
 Contents ( 167 ) Actiivities ( 44 )
Balkans 22 92
Middle East 18 56
Black Sea and Caucasus 2 15
Mediterranean 2 4
Identity Fields ( 2 Fields )
 Contents ( 172 ) Actiivities ( 66 )
Islamic World 51 143
Turkish World 15 29
Turkey ( 1 Fields )
 Contents ( 197 ) Actiivities ( 48 )
Turkey 48 197

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